go to the control panel. Then right click on inventor and select uninstall/change
Then you will see this
Click repair or reinstall
Let me know if it fixes it.
Looks like a generic error, you may be using an invalid character in your new part number. Stick with Alpha-Numeric with hyphen and underscore. Other characters will produce this type of error.
I dont really use any other characters aside of the ones you mentioned, besides I assume that the characters that Inventor lets you to use naming your parts are the characters allowed.
On the other hand it seems that the issue happens when copying big assemblies and maybe parts with long folder path. Although if a path is londer than allowed, there is a special message for that. .