I see this is a older post, but I am having the same sort of problem with Civil 3d 2011. I'm coming here MAP 3D bacause I think this is a MAP issue. The problem doesn't happen when plotting the same drawing from straight AutoCAD.
Using a jpg tif or sid, if there is any rotation to either the image or with a dview twist, the background aerial image is not plotted. I have tested multiple ways, but it all comes back to the twisted \ rotated image. These images are using the image insert method to put the image in. I am trying to plot the the DWF to PDF.pc3 included with install, with do dpi modifications.
If I dview twist back to 0, the image prints out.
I tried that, but Civil 3d or Map or what ever is reading the image still sees the image as rotated in some way and not plotting. It's weird because there is also a image file used for the location map on the same sheet and that is working. It will dview twist and plot, and also viewport rotate and plot, mur for some reason the larger viewport will not display the aerial. I changed the available memeory that map can use for images from default to 720mb using "MAPIOPTIONS", and that didn't help.
Using Image Insert. From my seaching around, it looks like the FDO route has its own issues.
Just a reminder, when printing this rotated\twisted image with AutoCAD, there is no problem. This only is in Civil 3D that i'm having the problem. I have not had a chance to try this out in MAP 3D yet. It just looks like something in map is treating the image different than it would in straight Autocad.