Yes. In the Toolspace, click on the Settings tab, right-click on the drawing name and choose Edit Drawing Settings...
Once there, under the Units and Zone tab, set your coordinate system.
You are on top of your game!
But, I don't have an exact match in any pulldowns, so it's still not jiving between the two.
I need the geographic coordinate system to be: GCS_North_American_1983
And the Projected Coordinate System to be: NAD_1983_UTM_Zone_17N
I can't find either, but I did find under Category in CAD: UTM NAD83 Datum, with the Description of NAD83(CSRS)/UTM zone 17N. But that doesn't work either.
What am I overlooking?
I don't know anything about ArcGIS. That's a whole different ball game for me. Sorry.
I guess Arcgis needs a .PRJ file, that's why you get that error, sir.
Unzip the attached one, rename the content to match the name of SHP/DBF/SHX files of your shapeset, and try again to load all in Arcgis.
A .PRJ is the fourth file of a shapeset, so you should unzip (renaming it) in the same folder of its fellows SHP/DBF/SHX.
Then in your Gis you load the .SHP as new layer, and automatically the remaining DBF/SHX/PRJ will be used, in order to place the data (geometry and attributes) on the Earth.
I advise you to read more about the shape format (standard in Gis environment) here, sir.