If it launches fine when connected to the network and then you go back off the network and try again, does it fail in that scenario? Sounds like that was what you were saying but I wanted to confirm.
When it launches fine on the network, you could type the commands DWGPREFIX and ACADPREFIX to see all the folders it is accessing. If one of those is a network location then that would be the problem.
You could also try exporting all the system variables to a text file (.SCR) and examine that with NOTEPAD to see if any network folders are specified. Use the SYSVDLG command to do that.
Basically I am wondering if this is a customized deployment where someone maybe has pointed a default setting to a network location?
I see by your earlier reply that you have tried straight off the DVD so the network path thing is unlikely. But you may be having an issue with the profile being created improperly during the install. What you can do to combat that is to force AutoCAD to re-create the profile the next time it is launched. To do that you simply delete a registry key under HKCU and delete a folder.
Type %APPDATA% into the windows explorer path bar, then navigate to "Autodesk" and delete the folder for the specific version of AutoCAD that you are having problems with (e.g. C:\Users\jsmith\AppData\Roaming\Autodesk\C3D 2010).
Then delete the key under HKCU\Software\Autodesk that relates to the version (e.g. HKCU\Software\Autodesk\AutoCAD\R18.0\ACAD-8000:409 is probably correct for Civil 3D 2010). Just delete that whole key.
When AutoCAD relaunches it will rebuild the profile from scratch. Make sure you use the end-user's login id to do all of the above and don't elevate permissions to some other account id.
Also you could try temporarily giving the user admin rights until AutoCAD is working, then put him back to the default and see if it still works.
I checked the system path variable and there was a network location specified.. The network path in the variable was used for another of our applications.. I removed this and it works fine.. Strange that something in the path variable would crash Civil 3D..
Works now though, woohoo! Big thanks to everyone for all the help!
Old thread, but thought I could provide some clarity for people still looking.....
This issue is due to the Autodesk profile .arg. With the release of Windows 7, Microsoft updated paths for 32bit vs 64bit architecture; Win7 32bit - "C:\Program Files (x86)" when the conventional XP 32bit machines used to be "C:\Program Files". This change in the paths will cause ACAD .arg profiles to break when imported to a Win7 machine. Best advice....recreate your .arg separately for XP as well as Win7 and they will work as designed.